JABLONEC NAD NISOU
Bijouterie to the World
Glass and crystal makers flourished throughout Europe, but the abundant natural resources and continuous innovation of those in Jablonec earned the remote village the title of "Bijouterie to the World" for nearly a century.
Evidence of glassmaking in Northern Bohemia goes back to the 13th century . Some of the names synonymous with crystal and glass excellence today have deep regional roots.
- The Riedel family - whose glasses are a contemporary vinophile favorite -- were known as the "Glass Kings of the Jizera Mountains." They are credited with the first mass production of costume jewelry -- democratizing adornment that had previously been the realm of the rich and royal. But traveling with these newly minted treasures was treacherous. Their founder, Johann Christophe Riedel, was murdered on a Bohemian glass sales trip in 1723.
- A young glass cutter named Daniel Swarovski learned glassmaking from his father in a nearby mountain town, but started his own company in Austria after inventing an electric crystal cutting machine with the promise to bring "diamonds" to all.
- And at least three young tradesmen I know of -- all uncles of two of my grandparents -- came to Jablonec from Prussia to toil in glass painting, cutting and finishing in order to eventually save enough money for their passage to Ellis Island in the late 1800s.
By the 1800s, "sample men" from Jablonec travelled the world, introducing their handcrafted buttons and beads to the runways of Paris and eventually the fresh fashion of New York flappers. The men carried ideas back from all corners of the globe driving the Jablonec production of tribal beads for Africans, regalia items for Native Americans and even religious items for Far Eastern faiths. The village itself became an international commerce center as costume jewelry merchants flocked to the town for the "Austrian glass rush" in pursuit of highly-sought bijouterie.
Jablonec's glass and its' artisans have been absurdly resilient under at least a half dozen flags. The work has survived two world wars and weathered Communist takeover -- along with all the unimaginable human tragedy of the economic and political upheaval.
The village was torched to ashes during the Crusades, but from the embers rose a settlement of displaced German craftsman -- and the start of the glassmaking industry. It was burned to the ground again in the 1600s during the 30-Year War and the Lutheran community was subsequently exiled. But still the community emerged again to become a leading taxation source for the House of Hapsburg .
The upheaval of the first World War and fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire dampened production, but within a short period of time the region boasted more than 700 companies selling costume jewelry from the new Czech state. That narrow window between wars proved to be the last best time for the industry there.
THE GREATEST CHALLENGE YET
Today the challenges of technology, globalization and young workers rejecting the hot, exacting work of the presser in front of the blazing forge-- have left a few prospering large companies producing molded beads by modern methods -- and a handful of surviving, old-school artisans.
These mom and pop shops largely use the molds and methods that have been handed down in their families for generations sometimes augmented with new ideas and taking other jobs to keep their tradition alive.
The buttons are pressed one by one and the beads still molded, faceted and/ or table cut cut in small batches with with an artful eye and rudimentary equipment. It is heart-breaking that the youngest button presser I buy from today is now in his early 60s.
At the start on my creative journey from journalism to jewelry , I was caught too often by online sellers guaranteeing genuine Czech Glass buttons -- only to deliver poor-quality knock-offs from another continent. These buttons show the design of historic Czech patterns -- often in actual traditional molds purchased inexpensively from one of the many liquidated Jablonec operations -- but they are made crudely with mechanical processes or poorly trained hands.
I am fortunate to now purchase my beads and buttons with two U.S. based entrepreneurs with a deep passion and commitment for both the quality of the glass and the lives of those are still making it. In gleefully joining their cause through my own endeavor - they have connected me both with my family history and my own fresh path forward.
I've done a lot of homework on Artisan Czech Glass and Jablonec over the past two years (even joining The Society for Bead Researchers ) -- but nothing compares to the fire and history you feel when you hold one of these beads or buttons in your hand.
I'm planning to travel to Jablonec this fall and hope to bring you along through this site. Thank you for your interest in our adventure to date.
By Judi Mohn Griggs, April 2017