Jablonec in the boom years of Bijouterie

Jablonec in the boom years of Bijouterie

JABLONEC NAD NISOU

Bijouterie to the World 

The incredible artisans who make the beads and handcraft each individual button I use  are the last of a proud tradition of sturdy,exceptional beauty in a little mountain village that actually introduced the idea of jewelry for all of us to the rest of the world.  

Over the centuries, their craft has survived the destruction of their village, the banishment of key craftsmen, two world wars,  communist takeover and independence again- only to be critically challenged by globalization , technology, internet knock-offs  -- and the task of attracting another generation to their exacting work in front of a  blazing forge., 

Glass and crystal makers flourished throughout Europe for centuries, but the abundant natural resources and continuous innovation of those in Jablonec - 32 km from Poland in the Jizerra Mountains of the Czech Republic --   earned the remote village the title of "Bijouterie to the World" for nearly a century.  I am proud to showcase their work today. 

 

Evidence of glassmaking in Northern Bohemia goes back to the 13th century . Some of the names synonymous with crystal and glass excellence today have deep regional roots. 

Many of the molds, methods and backyard locations used today are identical to those used at the heyday of production in Jablonec in the late 1800s and early 1900s. 

Many of the molds, methods and backyard locations used today are identical to those used at the heyday of production in Jablonec in the late 1800s and early 1900s. 

Two chimneys of differing height on a Jablonec roof were once an indicator of a glassmaker at work. The taller spire provided the higher-temperatures required for glasswork.  The uneven stacks are still prominent on the cottages that dot the hillsides. 

Two chimneys of differing height on a Jablonec roof were once an indicator of a glassmaker at work. The taller spire provided the higher-temperatures required for glasswork.  The uneven stacks are still prominent on the cottages that dot the hillsides. 

  • The Riedel family - whose glasses are a contemporary vinophile favorite -- were known as the "Glass Kings of the Jizera Mountains." They are credited with the first mass production of costume jewelry -- democratizing adornment that had previously been the realm of the rich and royal.  But traveling with these newly minted treasures was treacherous. Their founder, Johann Christophe Riedel, was murdered on a Bohemian glass sales trip in 1723.
  • A young glass cutter named Daniel Swarovski learned glassmaking from his father in a nearby mountain town, but started his own company in Austria after inventing an electric crystal cutting machine with the promise to bring "diamonds" to all. 
  • And at least three young tradesmen I know of  -- all uncles of two of my grandparents   -- came to Jablonec from Prussia to toil in glass painting, cutting and finishing in order to eventually save enough money for their passage to Ellis Island in the late 1800s to work at the booming railyards in Buffalo, New York. 

By the 1800s, "sample men" from Jablonec travelled the world, introducing their handcrafted buttons and beads to the runways of Paris and eventually the fresh fashion of New York flappers. The men carried ideas back from all corners of the globe driving the Jablonec production of tribal beads for Africans, regalia items for Native Americans and even religious items for Far Eastern faiths.  The village itself became an international commerce center as costume jewelry merchants flocked to the town for the "Austrian glass rush"  in pursuit of highly-sought bijouterie. 

MASSIVE CHALLENGES 

Jablonec's glass and its' artisans have been absurdly resilient under at least a half dozen flags. The work has survived two world wars and weathered Communist takeover -- along with all the unimaginable  human tragedy of the economic and political upheaval. 

Below is a button sample card  using by the traveling Sample Men of Jablonec in the days of steamship travel to all corners of the world.  Above is a sales piece from the same period  illustrating the fashionable options possible with Jablonec's beads and buttons.

Below is a button sample card  using by the traveling Sample Men of Jablonec in the days of steamship travel to all corners of the world.  Above is a sales piece from the same period  illustrating the fashionable options possible with Jablonec's beads and buttons.

The village was torched to ashes during the Crusades, but from the embers rose a settlement of displaced German craftsman -- and the start of the glassmaking industry.  It was burned to the ground again in the 1600s during the 30-Year War and the Lutheran community was subsequently exiled. But still the  community emerged again  the emerging bijouterie become a leading taxation source for the House of Hapsburg . 

Button Sample Card  - Jablonec

The upheaval of the first World War  and fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire dampened production, but within a short period of time the region boasted more than 700 companies selling costume jewelry from the new Czech state.    That narrow window between wars proved to be the last best time for the industry there.

THE GREATEST CHALLENGE YET 

Today the challenges of technology, globalization and young workers rejecting the hot, exacting work of the presser in front of the blazing forge-- have left a few prospering large companies producing molded beads by modern methods -- and a handful of surviving,  old-school artisans.

A village map from the Jablonec Glass Museum collection with icons representing the locations of glassworks, pressing shops, handcutting, buttons, lamp work, table cut beads, glass Christmas decorations and other specialities. 

A village map from the Jablonec Glass Museum collection with icons representing the locations of glassworks, pressing shops, handcutting, buttons, lamp work, table cut beads, glass Christmas decorations and other specialities. 

These mom and pop shops largely use the molds and methods that have been handed down in their families for generations sometimes augmented with new ideas and taking other jobs to keep their tradition alive. 

The buttons are pressed one by one and the beads still molded, faceted and/ or table cut cut in small batches with with an artful eye and rudimentary equipment. It is heart-breaking that the youngest button presser I buy from today is now in his early 60s. 

At the start on my creative journey from journalism to jewelry , I was caught too often by online sellers guaranteeing genuine Czech Glass buttons -- only to deliver poor-quality knock-offs from another continent. These fraud pieces buttons show the design of historic Czech patterns -- often in actual traditional molds purchased inexpensively  from one of the many liquidated Jablonec operations  -- but they are made crudely with mechanical processes or poorly trained hands. 

I am fortunate to now purchase my beads and buttons  with two U.S. based entrepreneurs with a deep passion and commitment for both the quality of the glass and the lives of those are still making it.  In gleefully joining their cause through my own endeavor - they have connected me both with my family history and my own fresh path forward.

I've done a lot of homework on Artisan Czech Glass and Jablonec over the past two years (even joining The Society for Bead Researchers ) -- but nothing compares to the fire and history you feel when you hold one of these beads or buttons in your hand.  

By this point,  I know the painting detail signatures and production quirks of the artisans as if they were pressing beads down the block. I'm planning to travel to Jablonec to finally meet them.soon  and hope to bring you along through this site.  Thank you for your interest in our adventure to date. 

 

By Judi Mohn Griggs, April 2017

The town center pf Jablonec today. 

The town center pf Jablonec today.